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Thursday, December 1, 2011

THE KATAVARAYAS


Thirty one epigraphs issued by one or two chiefs bearing
thesamenameofKopPeruncinkaarefoundatTiruvannamalai.
An examination of them reveals that they fall into two distinct
groups.

The inscriptions from 181 to 196  ,are found issued by
Kop  Peruncinkatevar  with  the  titles Sakala  puvana
chakkaravattikal, Katavan or Katavarayan,Alakiyaciyan or Kutal
Alakiyaciyan (183), and Avani Alappirantan. Several of the rest
were issued by Kop Peruncinka who bore only the title
Sakalapuvanaccakkaravattikal, with  the  additional  title  of
Sipallavan and  the  title  of Avani  Alappirantan in. The
absence of the titles Kutal Alakiyaciyan and Katavan in
the epigraphs of the second group shows that it belongs to
a ruler different from the one possessing them.

That these two individuals were father and son seems to
be suggested ne epigraph. It purports to be a record of
Katava Kumaran (the son of Katava) with titles like Vilvallaperumal
(Skt. Khadgamalla) who was the son of Sakalapuvanachakkaravatti
Kutal Avani Alappirantan Kop Peruncinkan. It appears that
this  Katava  Kumaran,  when  he  succeeded  his  father,
assumed  his  father's  name  Kop  Peruncinka  and  issued
inscriptions under this name. So, the chief who issued the
first set of epigraphs may be Kop Peruncinka-I and the
one who issued the second set of epigraphs may be Kop
Peruncinka-II. The large number of epigraphs of these
chiefs found at Tiruvannamalai clearly show their power
and influence in this area and their extreme devotion to
the god of the place.

The Katavas also called the latter Pallavas were known from
epigraphs of the earlier Chola period. But the chiefs of
the family began to be prominent from the time of Kulottunka-III.
It may be noted that here there is no mention made
of Rajaraja-III; neither is there any indication as to the
date of commencement of Kop Peruncinka's rule, although
the separate reference to this chief's 11th regnal year makes
it certain that he ruled independently.

The Tiruvannamalai epigraph undated, purports to
be a record of one Katava Kumaran, the lord of Mallai,
Mayilai, Kanhi, Tantaka nadu etc., who is stated to be the
son of (ivan makan) of Pallavar peruman Sakalabuvana
Chakravarti Kutal Avaniyalap pirantan Kop Peruncinkan
described  as Mallaikavalan,  Niccankamallan and
Paratamvallan. Though the latter's son, the hero of the
record, is called merely as Katava Kumaran (the son of
Katava), from the many achievements of his detailed in
the record, one may infer that he was in all probability the
same  as  Maharajasimha  or  Kop  Peruncinka  of  the
Tripurantakam epigraph.


It is, therefore, clear that these two  epigraphs,
together  with  the  other  ones  discussed previously, furnish
enough  proof to show that there existed two  Kop  Peruncinkas,
the  first  being  the  father  of  the second.The astronomical
details contained in the epigraphs of this family also point
to the same conclusion because they are seen to correspond
to dates of two reign periods: one  beginning  in  A.D.
1231-32  and  another  in  A.D. 1243. In the light of the
above discussion the mother of Kop  Peruncinka-II  was
Silavati  who  was  the  wife  of Jiyamahipai or Kop Peruncinka.
Kop  Peruncinka-I  who  was  a  feudatory  under
Kulottunka-III,  had  gradually  begun  to  assert  his
independence from the commencement of the reign of
Rajaraja-III  (A.D.  1216-1260).

Establishing  himself  at Centamankalam identified with
the village of the same name close to Tirunamanallur,
Kop Peruncinka-I seemed to have pursued vigourously
his ambition to set up an independent principality by defying
his Chola suzerain. The Chola king's difficulties were
evidently brought about by Kop Peruncinka-I.
The fact of this chief's vanquishing of Rajaraja-III at Tellaru which
is not known from any other  source  till  now,  but  attested
by  three  recently discovered fragmentary inscriptions
is considered to have taken place about A.D. 1231-32
from which year he is credited with the issuing of records
independently using the title Sakala buvana chakaravattikal.

Other interesting points mentioned in this record which consists
of 5 Tamil verses  in  different  metres,  are  that  Kop  Peruncinka
possessed  'the  titles  of  Avaninarayana,  patron  of Tamil
Katava, Tondai  mannavan,  Nrpatunka, Tribhuvanatti
rajakkal tampiran, and ruler of Mallai', and the record
speaks about his prowess, fame, victory over the Cholas,
the Pandyas, and the Kannadas and his abiding devotion
to the god at Chidambaram. An important point to be
noted is that the chief gets here the title of Virapratapar
which, though reminding one of his father Pallavantar's
title Virarvira and his grandfather's title Viracekara, was
one  of  the  titles  borne  by  the  Hoysala  kings.  Another
point to be noted here is that the king is called Alkiya
Pallavar which reminds one of his father of the same name
as mentioned by us above.
Kop Peruncinka-I (circa A.D. 1231-1263)
This chief who is mentioned in an epigraph of the 35th
year (A.D., 1213) of the reign of Kulattunka-III, and who,
neverreconcilinghimselfasasubordinateofRajaraja-IIIbegan
to increase his power in the following years, seems to be
the same as the one who in A.D. 1229 recognised as his
sovereign  Rajaraja-III.  But  in  A.D.  1231-32,  he  over-
powered  his  suzerain,  became  almost  independent
and began to issue records in his own right.


Sixteen epigraphs of our collection are attributed to
Kop Peruncinka-I. Three of them recently discovered by
us, certainly belong to him, because, though fragmentary
and have not preserved the date particulars, one of them
contains parts of his unique meykkirtti found in his Vailur
record. Two  others,  also  fragmentary  may  be  his  on
account  of  the  occurrence  of  the  name  Mintan  Ciyan
Annakankakkar coupled with Kop Perunchinkan in one
and  the  name  alone  without  the  chief's  name  in  the
other,  the  name  Mintan  Ciyan  being  borne  by  Kop
Peruncinka  I  in  his  definite  record  of  the  13th  year
recently discovered.

The rest are considered to belong to this chief on the ground
that in all of them, except in one   epigraph,   he   is   called
as   Sakala   buvana chakkaravattikal  Kutal  Alppirantan
Katavarayan  Alkiya Ciyan alias Kop Peruncinka.
The epithet Alakiya Ciyan occurring in an epigraph of this
family, supported by the internal  evidence  and  astronomical
details  would  help its attribution to this chief, according to
the collection, the presence of the title Katavarayan or Katavan
along with Alakiya Ciyan, in an epigraph seems to be a better
indicator for attributing it to this chief.

That the prince figuring in one epigraph is called as Katavakumaran
(the son of Katava) is noteworthy as it means that his father
Kop  Peruncinka  I  was  known  chiefly  by  the  title  of
Katava. It should however, be mentioned here that none
of  the  130  epigraphs  attributed  to  Kop  Peruncinka-II,
contains  one  or  the  other  of  these  two,  titles,  as  the
distinguishing epithet of this chief, and in a majority of
them he is called Sakala buvana chakkaravartikal Avani
Alappirantan  alias Kop Peruncinka.


Kop Peruncinka-I's epigraphs under study, range in
date from the 4th year to 31st year. Two belong to the
27th year; two to the 14th year, one to the 13th year and
amongst the remaining ones containing date particulars
two are of the 9th year; and two belong to the 5th year.
Here we are faced with a problem. Until now records of
this chief dated beyond the 13th year are not stated to
have been found.

How then one can account for records of the 14th,
27th and 31st years? The only reason that can be adduced
for  this  is  that  in  the  records  of  this  chief  with  high
regnal  years  also,  he  bears  the  name  in  its  full  fledged
form, which is not found applied in the epigraphs of this
family to any other chief. If this is accepted then it will
follow that though his son had become the ruler from
A.D.  1242-43,  Kop  Peruncinka-I  continued  to  be
powerful till at least his 31st year. Five epigraphs of this
group contain date particulars, which yield the following
equivalents in the Christian era.
1) Year 5, Cinka (paksha omitted) 5, Friday, Revati
2) Year 9, Mitunaba (The tithi omitted), Sunday, Mula
3) Year 14, Viruccikasu. 15, Sunday
4) Year 27, Meshasu. 3, Friday, Mrgasirsa
5) Year (lost), Purattathi 21st, (paksha omitted) 13, Param

Probably A.D. 1236, August 22 Friday. But on this
day the nak. was Asvini that too was current for .12 part
of the day only. Perhaps the naksatra is wrongly quoted
The paksha was ba.

Probably  A.D.  1241,  May  26,  Sunday,  ba.  1  after
.46, and Mala after .47 of the day.
A.D.  1245,  November  5,  Sunday.  Probably  A.D.
1259,  March  28,  Friday,  su.  3,  but  the nakshatra was
Krttika, not Mrgasirsa.

Probably A.D. 1256, September 17, Sunday, ba 12
up to .33 and Magha up to .34 of the day. If this is accepted
then the regnal year may be 25.

The  calculation of  the  equivalents  for  the  date
particulars is vitiated by the omission of some detail or
by wrong quotation of some other detail in giving them
in  all  the  four  above  mentioned  cases.  Usually  such
difficulties are met with while calculating the equivalents
in many an instance.
No. 124 has: Year 10, Sirnhagu 5, Monday, Revati
A.D., 1241, July 29, Monday.
Considering this with the three dated records of ours
(Nos. 1, 2 and 4 given above), the date of accession of the
chief appears to fall between May 26, and July 29 of A.D.
1231. The date of fragmentary epigraph (No. 5 above),
assuming its regnal year was 25, is also seen to support
this finding.


DONORS  AND  DONATIONS  OF  LANDS,
UTENSILS  AND  GOLD

The  number  of  inscriptions  for  this  small  chief  is
high, and they reveal some interesting information. We
have seen that quite a few epigraphs of the Chola period
recorded donations of lamps to the god of Tiruvannamalai.
Strangely, none of the epigraphs dealt with here relates to
this matter, except one. On the other hand, five of these
are  records  registering  gifts  of  utensils  and  gold  for
ornaments. The chief himself is said to have donated in
the  4th  year  (A.D.  1235)  of  his  reign  a patakamalai
(necklace) composed of pearls, coral and sapphire strung
in a golden thread, all together weighing 302 kalanchu,
for  adorning  the  god Tiruvannamalai  udaiya  nayanar.
According   to   another   epigraph,   a   lady,   named
Nampirattiyar Nachiyar, gifted in A.D. 1241 three plates
made of silver. Though not stated, the gift should have
been made to the temple only.

She is also the donor in the undated epigraph gifting some
more utensils and some ornaments here stated to be to the
god. The fragmentary inscription dated A.D. 1244 registers
a gift probably by the chief, here bearing the title Mintan
Ciyan, instead of Alagiya Ciyan, a golden aureole (tiruvasikai),
probably to the god's Nataraja aspect (atirudkalatika),
indeed a beautiful expression), and also a couple of white
flywisks made of silver. One epigraph of this period, which is
extremely fragmentary, seems to have been a record of donation
of some ornaments to the god.


The remaining epigraphs are seen to be records of
land gifts. The chief himself in his 5th year (i.e., A.D.
1236) gave away the incomes in paddy and cash derived
from such taxes as ayam and patikaval and other incomes
from the god's tevatanapparru and Anna nadu to provide
for the worship and for works in the temple. Again he
figures as the donor in the epigraph dated in the same year
(A.D. 1236), gifting the village of Pattanankadu together
with a number of taxes (names given), to the Lord, as
(tiruma) tappallippuram (to provide for the requirements
of the kitchen). According to the ep. dated A.D. 1240,
the tanattar, tevakanmi and koyilkanakkan passed an order,
based on the chief's instructions, that the rate of incomes
in paddy and cash derived from the lands in Anna nadu
and from other devadana villages should remain as it was
in the chief's 8th year (i.e., A.D. 1239) and that, receiving
the incomes at this rate from the 9th year, the worship
and works in the temple should be conducted in the temple
without diminution, evidently by the temple authorities.


In the ep.dated in A.D. 1245, the chief is said to have
gifted the village of Kilaichirupakkam in Adaiyur nadu
together  with  a  number  of  taxes  (names  given)  as
madaippallip puram to the image of a god (name lost) set
up  in  the  temple  by  his  senior  queen  Alagiya  Pallavar
Nachiyar. Three persons (names not preserved fully) are
stated to have given (or sold) some land (details lost) to
the wife of Avani Alappirantan Nilakankaraiyar for her to
gift  it  for  use  as Tiruvannamalai  nantavanam (flower
garden)  as  per  the  ep.  dated  A.D.  1258.  According  to
another ep. of the same year, the temple authorities are
stated to have sold to the above   mentioned lady named
Nankayalvar Nayanar for 10,000 anratu narkasu a site of
the extent of 13½ kuli within temple precincts, for her to
raise a shrine there to the god named after her. In the 31st
year of the chief (i.e., A.D. 1262), a certain subordinate
of the chief named Vanakovaraiyan Tayilunalla perumal
Tirunirruviramaka tacholan is said to have given the village
of Tachar together with incomes from taxes, to the Lord
to  provide  for  a  service  instituted  in  his  name  and  for
works in the temple. Two fragmentary epigraphs which
have not preserved the date particulars, record gifts of the
villages of Kottapunthi and Nenmali respectively together
with their tax incomes, made by a certain Mindan Siyan
Annakankakkar, to the God.

INSCRIPTIONS

Of course the gifts of ornaments referred to in some
of the epigraphs are interesting; but of all of them the gift
of the necklace made by the chief, is very interesting as it
furnishes the various articles like big pearls, small pearls,
ripe coral etc. that went into its making.
Among the land grants the following are noteworthy.
Probably  the  income  of  the  temple  dwindled  in  about
A.D. 1239 either on account of some reduction proposed
on the rates of taxation or due to inflation. So, perhaps,
on the representation of the temple authorities made in
A.D. 1240, the chief ordered that the taxes should be paid
at the rate, which prevailed in the previous year, and the
incomes from them should be used for worship and works
in the temple without any diminution. It is noteworthy
that the chief is referred to as Aiyyatevar.

The inscription of the chief's 3rd year from Munnur
(S.A. Dt.), (S.I.I., XII, No. 134), also refers to Aiyyatevar
seems to refer to Kop    Peruncinka    I    only    and
not    his    father Manavalapperumal as concluded in S.I.I. XII, p 68.
The epigraph dated A.D. 1245, reveals for the first
time the name of the senior queen of the chief.


Alagiya Pallavar Nachiyar:
She was Alagiya Pallavar Nachiyar.The name Alagiya Pallavar
borne by  the  queen  is  both  interesting  and  intriguing.  It  has
been shown above that Kop  Perucinka I was always called
as Alagiya Siyan and that his father Pallavantar possessed
the  title  or  additional  name  of  Alagiya  Pallavan. The
possession of the name of Alagiya Pallavar by this queen
requires an explanation. The only one that suggests itself
is that Alagiya Siyan being her husband's name was taboo
for a Hindu lady to bear, for a Hindu lady, can neither
speak out her husband's name nor be called by that name,
and  so  she  was  not  given  the  name  of  Alakiya  Siyan.

Instead, the name Alagiya Pallavar, meaning a handsome
Pallava, after the family to which the chief belonged, seems
to have been preferred by the queen. We have seen above
that  Kop  Peruncinka-II  also  called  Maharajasimha  was
the son of Jiya mahipati identified with Kop Peruncinka
I, through Silavati. It is not known if this Silavati was
identical with Alagiya Pallavar Nachiyar, stated to be the
senior queen of the chief under reference. Probably not,
and Silavati was a junior queen as distinguished from the
senior queen mentioned above.


The inscription, dated A.D. 1258, is interes ting from
the point of view of building works in the temple. It shows
that  after  this  date  there  was  to  come  into  existence  a
shrine of the god named Natlkaiyalvicuramutaiyar, after
the donor Nankayalvar Nayanar, close by on the south
side of the present temple of the goddess. There is no trace
of this shrine now, either because it was never  built  or
because  of  its  demolition  at  a  later  date.  That  a
Vanakovaraiyan chief was either a subordinate under Kop
Peruncinka-I  or  was  a  friend  of  his  is  revealed  by  the
epigraph, dated A.D. 1262.



Thefragmentaryepigraphrecentlydiscovered,isunique.
It records the gift of a village by a certain Mindan Siyan
Annakankakkar Kop Perunchinkan. The purpose for which
the gift was made is stated to be to take out the deity in
procession daily for the reason that this donor was affected
by the evil time brought by the transit of Saturn in the 8th
houseofhishoroscope.Thatitwasanexpensiveaffairneeding
much financial support is proved by the fact that this person
had endowed an entire village to meet the expenses. Thus,
this epigraph for the first time brings to our notice the very
rare information that in the middle of the 13th Century
A.D. in Tamilnadu, a man of importance like the donor of
the epigraph had not only had strong belief in the predictive
astrology but also had acted according to its dictates.

Kop Peruncinka-II (circa A.D. 1243-1279)
Kop Peruncinka-II was the son of Kop Peruncinka-I
identified with Jiya mahipati, through his queen Silavati.
His inscriptions are numerous.
Fifteen epigraphs in our collection may be assigned
to Kop Peruncinka-II. They range in date from the 2nd
year to the 36th year of the chief's reign. With the help of
date particulars of three records of Sakala buvana chak
karavattikal Sri Kop Peruncinkateva, the date of accession
of this chief approximately lay between the 11th February
and 30th July of A.D. 1243. Five of the epigraphs of our
collection contain astro nomical details, which are given
below with their equivalents. We may see if these dates
help us in fixing the date of accession of the chief with
greater precision.
1) Year 2, Sinlha gu. 1, Wednesday, Maka   - A.D.
1242, July 30, Wednesday
2) Year 2, Mina Su. 5, Thursday, Anusam  - Irregular
3) Year 15, Mituna 25th, Wednesday, Attam - A.D.
1257,June 30,Wednesday.
4) Year 18, Kumpa ba. 3, Friday Revati     - Irregular
The first date does not seem to quote the regnal year
correctly.
But calculations made from the data contained in
ten epigraphs enable us to know that the date of accession
of Kop Peruncinka-II lay between the 2nd and the 27th
July, A.D. 1243.

Kop Peruncinka-II's personality
Earlier something has been said about this chief while
comparing his qualities and achievements with those of
his father and predecessor. It appears that the record was
put up when Kop Peruncinka I was alive as evidenced by
the fact that its beginning portion is devoted to the praise
of Kop Peruncikca I and by the fact that the hero of the
epigraph is called as Katava Kumaran (literally meaning
'the  son  of  Katava')  who  bears  besides,  the  names  of
Atkondadevan and Kankayan. If this is accepted, then it
may  be  dated  prior  to  A.D.1263,  the  last  year  of  Kop
Peruncika-I, according to our study.

This inscription depicts Katava Kumaran i.e., Kop
Peruncika II as a dutiful son, a valiant fighter, a sincere devotee
of the god Annamalaiyar or Tiruvannamalai udaiya nayanar,
and a great benefactor to the people of Tiruvannamalai. After
stating  that  he  was  the  possessor  of  Mallai  (modern
Mamallapuram), Mayilai (modern Mylapore in Madras),
Kanchi Tantakanadu,  Pali,  the  Pennai  and  Koval,  the
inscription makes mention of the chief's success in wars
against the Karunatar (i.e., Hoysalas) and the Telunkar (i.e.,
the Telugu Cholas). He seems to have borne a number of
titles, after each one of them one or the other of his charitable
deeds like digging wells, rearing gardens is named. They are:
Venavudtaiyan,   Nichankamallan,   Valvallaperumal,
Nicharikamallan, Tamilnadukattapertunal,   Senattalaivan,
Venrumankonta  perumal,  Paratamvallaperumal  and
Virarayan.

It   is   seen   that   some   of   them   like Avaniyajappirantan,
Nichankamallan and Paratamvalla were borne by Kop Peruncinka-I,
and that Katava Kumaran simply used them for himself.
This chief appears to be either a subordinate or an
ally of the Kakatiya king Ganapati then, at the time of the
Tripuratakam inscription which, as has been stated above,
should belong to a date later than A.D. 1262, perhaps
later  than  A.D.  1263  when  Kop  Peruncinka-I  was  no
more, was an independant ruler 'who was the destroyer of
the  pride  of  the  king  of  Karnata'  (Karnataraja  mana
marddana),  'who  was  the  sun  to  the  lotus  tank  of  the
Chola  dynasty' (Chola  kula  kamala  divakara),'who was
the manager in the act of installation of the Pandyaraya'
(Pandyaraya sthapana sutradhara) and 'who elevated the
Chola (to the throne) who was shuddering with fear' (bhaya
cakitam = avacyarn potam = aropya cholam). These claims
do not seem to be empty boasts, and they probably reflect
the real political conditions of the time.

Kop Peruncinka- II,  as  per  this  record,  seemed  to  have
helped  Rajendra Chola-III and to have supported the Pandya
ruler of the period Jatavarman Sundarapandya-I (accn. A.D. 1251).
We  have  seen  in  connection  with  the  history  of  Kop
Peruncinka-I, that the Chola and the Pandya contemporary
of this chief were his bitter enemies. Especially the hostility
of  the  Pandya  king  Jalavarman  Sundara  Pandya  and
Jatavarman  Virapandya,  given  expression  to  in  their
epigraphs may have been directed towards Kop Peruncinka
I rather than towards his son. But, apparently, after the
demise of his father, Kop Peruncinka-II seemed to have
adopted the policy of being friendly with his southern
neighbours with a view to keep away the Karnata king of
the time from interfering to the politics of Tamilnadu.
His title 'destroyer of the pride of Karnata king suggested
that he was successful in the implementation of this policy.
DONORS  AND THEIR GIFTS
Of the fifteen inscriptions dealt with here, two relate
to gifts of lands.One of the epigraphs apparently refers to
the gift of some lands together with the incomes from taxes
(names given) by a certain person (detail lost) who was
probably associated with Maturantakap Pottapic Cholan
Vijayakanta  Gopaladevan.

The  presence  of  some  one connected with this chief
indicates that he was on friendly terms with Kop Peruncinka-II,
who, as we have shown above, appeared to.have followed
the policy of friendship with his neighbours, which seemed to
have helped him greatly.  Another  epigraph  dated  A.D.1261,
recently discovered, is interesting in that it records the gift made by
Atkontan alias Kankeyarayan of the village Kalamulanpunti
after purchasing it from the temple (evidently the temple of
the god Ttruvannamalai udaiya nayanar), for 30,000 kasu
and  endowing  the  same  to  the  temple  of  Avani
Alappiranticuramudaiya  nayanar  for  worshipping,  and
offering to its deity.


The epigraph states that the donor intended to build this temple
in the 3rd prakara of the main temple, for the physical welfare of
the chief, which shows that Kop Peruncinka-II was unwell then.
The donor is said to be one of the Cimantamutalis of the chief and he
bore the name Atkontan alias Kankayarayan after the chief
who is known to have had these names from his Tamil verse
inscription  already  discussed. This  epigraph  contains
information on the various gifts made to the main temple
and  on  a  variety  of  charitable  works  done  by  Kop
Peruncinka-II called here as Katava Kumaran and also by
his father. Another epigraph deals with the assignment of
land  on  certain  conditions  (details  lost)  by  the  temple
authorities to the temple devakanmi Tillaimuvayiranampi.


Nine epigraphs relate to the gifts of lamps to the god
and goddess of the temple for which cows and bulls were
endowed by the respective donors. Interestingly none of
the epigraphs records the endowment of sheep. One of
the inscriptions, belonging to the 2nd regnal year records
the gifts of three standing lamps, for burning as nunda
lamps to the god and goddess of the place. It is stated that
two of them were placed in the snana mantapa (bathing
hall) in front of the god's (shrine) and one was placed in
front of the Tirukkamakkottam. To provide for ghee for
the lamps 96 cows and 3 bulls are said to have been endowed.


The donor was Amur Alagiya Tiruchitrampalamutaiyan
Nilakankaraiyan, the son of Amur Nilakankaraiyan Avani
Alappirantan. Two inscriptions, ascribed to the time of
Kop Peruncinka-I record gifts by Nahkaiyalvar Nayanar,
the wife of Avani Alappirantan Nilakankaraiyar.The donor
of the inscription in question may be the son of this officer.
An officer named Panchanadivanan Nilakankaraiyar figures
in some inscriptions of the time of Kulattunka Chola-III
and in some eptgraphs of the time of Kop Peruncinka-I.
This officer is sometimes given the epithet of Pillaiyar;
also. It appears that this officer is the same as the one
mentioned in two records from Tiruvannamalai referred
to above, although in these two records, the officer is not
distinguished by the title Panchanadivanan, who is stated
to be one of the sons (kumararkalil) of Pillaiyar Pancana
divana Nilakankaraiyar.

This epigraph is dated A.D. 1261, and belongs to the time of
the chief under discussion. Thus two of the sons of Pancanadivana
Nilakankaraiyar who was active during the period of Kop Peruncinka-I,
were  active  during  the  period  of  the  latter's  son  Kop
Peruncinka-II. This  is  but  nadural.  It  is,  however,  not
known  if  both  or  any  one  of  these  two  sons  of
Pancanadivana  Nilakankaraiyar  were  born  to  his  wife
Nankaiyalavar Nayanar referred to above.


Another officer of the chief named Chilampanintan
Kuttatuvan alias Chetirayan of Paramesuramangalam alias
Cholakula pati chatur veti mangalam, gave 1 ½ lamps for
burning on every Tiruvathirai day, to the god. He endowed
48 cows and one bull for this purpose (of the 20th regnal
year). According to another epigraph, of the 36th regnal
year, Kakkunayakadevan, the son of Matisutanatevar, the
younger  brother  of  Maruta  (Matura)  nataka  Pottappic
Cholan Vijaiya Kantakopalatevar, gifted one nunda lamp
endowing 32 cows and one bull therefor. We have seen
above that some one associated with this Kantakopalatevar
gave some lands to the temple. Here a blood relation of his
was the donor.

This testifies to the close relationship that
existed between our chief and Vijaiya Kantakopala's relatives.
According to the epigraph of the 2nd regnal year,
Periyanayan, the son of Kotantai, apparently an ordinary
person belonging to Eyil nadu, gave ½ a nunda lamp for
which he endowed 16 cows and one bull. Another person,
belonging to the Chetti community, named Mallikarjuna
chetti, the son of Vima chetti, a Telungan (Telugu speaking
or hailing from the Telugu country) of Araiyarrumankalam
gifted a nunda lamp, endowing 32 cows and 1 bull for its
upkeep, which were left in charge of Suran, the son of
Pattikkon (ep. dated 12th regnal year). A reference to this
donor and Suran, the custodian of the cows and bull is
found in the ep. of the 13th regnal year, the purport of
which  is  that  the  temple  servants  like Srimahesvarak
kankaniseyvar, devakanmi and koyil kanakkar took away
from some tiruvilakku manratikal, the cows and bull left
in their charge and gave them over to Maruntan Appan
alias Periyanattukkon of Naraiyutaiyanpatti who was to
take care of 2¾ lamps with the yield of the cows. A certain
Pennottuvan alias Irasakampiramarayan, the son of Tukkai
alias Tiruvannamalai Manikkam one of the devaratiyar,
gave one nunda lamp and 32 cows and one bull for its
maintenance (ep. of the 21st regnal year).

An undated epigraph registers several gifts made by a certain
Penno Arivan, the son of Tukkaiyar Tiruvannamalai Manikkam,
one  of  the  twenty  four  devaratiyar enjoying  right  at
Tiruvannamalai,  consisting  of  some  utensils,  and  one
nunda lamp, to the god Tiruvannamalai udaiya nayanar;
provision made for feeding during the five festivals of that
year; digging of a well in the west street; setting up of the
image  of Tatapillaiyar;  building  of  the  doorway  of  the
shrine of Kaikkolapillaiyar; provision of gong to the village;
digging  of  a  well  for  the  Narpat  tennayira  matam  and
another for some other purpose; and digging up of a step
well  and  a  well  at  a  place  in  Kannan  taipunti  in
Naralokaviran  kilental.  It  is  interesting  to  note  that  a
private individual, a son of a devaratiyar could not only
make gifts to the temple but also accomplish certain public
welfare measures like digging up wells. Resources for his
deeds which must have cost him quite a substantial amount
of money may have been obtained from the estate of his
mother Tukkaiyar Tiruvannamalai Manikkam who must
have been a very wealthy devaratiyar amongst her twenty
four compatriots.

This chief's inscription with the regnal year 15, records
the  gift  made  by  Nampirattimar  Nachiyar,  the  wife  of
Mittantar, and the daughter of Pennarasiyar alias Utaiyalvar
who  was  the  wife  of  Kudal  Alappirantan  Katavarayan
Sadumperumal, of two utensils to the god. As has been
already mentioned, this Sadum perumal has been identified
with Kop Peruncinka-II, is not likely, because the epithet
Alagiya Siyan characteristic of him is not given to the chief
here. On the other hand the manner of calling him as
Avani Alappirantan alias Kop Peruncinka is exactly the
same as obtains in several of the records of Kop Peruncinka-
II,  as  we  have  noted  above. The  chief  figuring  in  the
epigraph in question is almost certainly the same as Kop
Peruncinka-II. It is interesting to note that he had the
additional name of Sadumperumal (meaning the lord who
is capable of striking). If this is so, then, this record becomes
very important in that it furnishes not only the name of
the chief's queen but also the name of his daughter and
that of her husband.
CONCLUSION

Kop  Peruncinka-I  and  his  son  were  remarkable
personalities. Imbued with the spirit of independence and
an  irrepressible  urge  to  improve  the  conditions  of  the
people of Tondai mandalam, the former rebelled against
his suzerain and succeeded in establishing his sway about
A.D. 1231 over a major part of the Tondai mandalam and
ran a government parallel to the rule of Rajaraja-III and
his son Rajandra-III.

The seat of his government was at Sendamangalam.
He was an able warrior and so could
offer resistance not only to the Chola army but to the
armies of the Pandyas and the Hoysalas of the time. He
was very active and seemed to have enthused the people
under  him  to  bring  more  areas  under  cultivation  and
produce more wealth. It appears that by his military exploits
he could collect some booty, which enriched his treasury.
Being a pious person and devotee of the god Siva, he used
a part of his wealth to build additional structures and to
rear flower gardens in the temple at Tiruvannamalai; these
activities must have improved the economic conditions
of the people, promoted the fine arts and must have given
a fillip to the religious and cultural activities of the people.

The causes that were dear to his heart were fulfilled at
Tiruvannamalai according to his records found here. That
agricultural activities were in the forefront during his time
is known from the fact that a majority of the epigraphs
registered gifts of taxes from villages by the chief and land
by his senior queen Mutha Tampirattiyar Alagiya Pallava
Nachiyar. The  gifts  of  jewels  and  utensils  made  to  the
temple by the chief  . and by Mittandar Nachiyar show
that the use of a variety of metals was in vogue and that
the craftsmen doing these works were patronised. That
there was tirunnani (temple building) work then is known
from three records two of which were of the chief's and
one of Nangaiyalvar Nayanar; wife of Avani Alappirantan
Nila Kankaraiyar to whom a plot was allotted in the temple
premises for building a shrine named Nangaiyalvicuramutaiyar
after her.

The point to be noted here is that as per the
record, the plot was situated to the south of the temple of
the Tirukkamakkottamudaiya Tampirattiyar showing that
the  goddess'  temple  was  already  there.  The  above
mentioned  fresh  building  works  in  a  temple  indicated
that the agamic practices were flourishing then, because
they were needed to consecrate the newly put up structures.
Kop Peruncinka-II was equally brilliant like his father.
He ignored his contemporary Chola king Rajendra-III,
and continued his independent rule in this region as did
his father.

According to us even when he was a son of the
Katava  i.e.,  Kop  Peruncinka-I,  he  did  so  much  at
Tiruvannmalai and half of one of the epigraphs is devoted
to the listing of his deeds which included the building of
new streets, mantapas, matams, tanks and flower gardens.
After  he  became  the  ruler  he  is  known  to  have  visited
places  like Tripurantakam  in  the  Kurnool  district  and
Draksarama in the East Godavari district where he put up
his  records.  His  records  at Tiruvannamalai  showed  the
continued attention paid to the temple and the area by
him, by his subordinates and allies. An epigraph dated
A.D. 1242 or 1243 records the gift of land to the god and
goddess by AlagiyaTiruchitrampalamutaiyan Nilakankaraiyan,
the  son  of  Amar  Nilakankaraiyan  Avani  Alappirantan.
The noteworthy point here is that the goddess is called
here  not  only  by  the  name Tirukkamakkottamudaiya
nachiyar known from a record noticed above, but also by
the name of Unnamulai nachiyar which name comes into
use for the first time here and which became the popular
one in later times.

That a new temple was built during this period is
known from one of the epigraphs. According to this a
Samanta mutali named Atkondan alias Kankeyarayan built
a shrine named Avani Alappiranndacuramudaiya nayanar.
Though its identification is difficult, the information that
it was in the third prakara of the main temple is noteworthy.
As in his father's reign period, now also gifts of utensils
were made to the temple by a royal lady Mittandar's wife,
named  Nampirattimar  Nachiyar  and  also  by  a  certain
Pennottuvan who also donated a lamp. This person was
the son of a devaratiyar named Tukkai (Skt. Durga) alias
Tiruvannamalai Manikkam who was one of the twenty
four devaratiyar having kani in Tiruvannamalai. These
records are interesting as they not only reveal the existence
of the Devaratiyar community there but also that some of
them  were  rich  so  as  to  be  able  to  make  considerable
donations to the temple. Since one of the activities of the
Devaratiyar community was performing dance before the
god in the temple, we may presume that this art was in
vogue  in  the  place  at  that  time.

Two  epigraphs  make mention of a Chetti named Mallikarjuna chetti,
son of Vima chetti, described as a Telunga, meaning either they
were Telugu speaking or hailed from the Telugu country.
This,  coupled  with  the  fact  that  an  associate  of
Maturantakap  Pattappicholan  Vijaiyakanta  Gopalan
probably a native of Nellore region, indicates the increase
in the visitors to this place from other regions.The presence
of Chettis here from other regions showed the flourishing
nadure of commerce and trade. Thus the two Katavarya
chiefs who were a force to reckon with in the politics of
the 13th Century Tamilnadu had contributed much to
the prosperity of the region around Tiruvannamalai and
to the growth in all aspects of the Siva temple there.